Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking Resources

Biblical Logic:  In Theory & Practice by Joel McDurmon

Joel McDurmonIn the so-called marketplace of ideas, Christians face countless attacks on and challenges to their faith, many of which engage in subversive rhetoric and logic in order to undermine the whole counsel of God. Whether coming from skeptics, atheist, leftists, cults, or even other Christians, poor logic and dubious reasoning deserve exposure and correction. In his new book, Biblical Logic, Joel McDurmon returns to God’s Word to recover logic and critical thinking from the hands of the enemy, and to expose the fallacies of unbelief and unbiblical ideas. But is the Bible really the place to turn for logic? Is not logic the domain of scholars and philosophers? The British philosopher John Locke long ago answered this common misconception: God has not been so sparing to men to make them barely two-legged creatures, and left it to Aristotle to make them rational. In other words, logic existed and people reasoned and used the critical faculties of their minds long before any philosopher came along to teach about it. God created logic and reasoning as He created man, and He created it for man, and therefore we should find it reasonable that God’s Word has something to say – if not a lot to say – about logic, rationality, and good judgment. Christ has made us priests and kings (Rev. 1:6). He has determined that His saints shall judge the world, and even judge angels (1 Cor. 6:23), and He has thoroughly equipped us to perform these tasks. God’s Word sets the standard of reasoning and law by which we shall judge, and the Bible teaches us this standard – a standard we must follow and to which we ourselves must give account. This new book, Biblical Logic, returns to Gods word to find that standard, and to recover the God-given directives for faithful logic and critical thinking. By this standard, and by this example, Gods saints – you – can indeed discern and judge the world as God has commanded.

A Concise Introduction to Logic by Patrick Hurley

Patrick HurleyUnsurpassed for its clarity and comprehensiveness, Hurley’s A CONCISE INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC is the #1 introductory logic textbook in the market. In this Eleventh Edition, Hurley continues to build upon the tradition of a lucid, focused, and accessible presentation of the basic subject matter of logic, both formal and informal. Hurley’s extensive, carefully sequenced collection of exercises continue to guide students toward greater proficiency with the skills they are learning.

“What I like perhaps most about Hurley’s text is the organization of the material. His book introduces the material in step-by-step way building off of what was just learned the section before and adding just enough information to each section to simplify the whole process of learning logic.” – David Weise, Gonzaga University

“This is the “gold standard” of introductory logic texts.” – Frank Ryan, Kent State University

“It is the clearest text, with the best technology available.” – Stephanie Semler, Radford University

“Hurley’s text provides a methodical introduction to the strategies and techniques usually covered in an introductory logic course, including both formal and informal topics. Numerous exercises provide plenty of opportunity for students to practice the skills they have learned.” – Allyson Mount, Keene State College

“Hurley’s book is thorough and very accessible to instructors and students. One of the best logic texts on the market.” – Paula Smithka, University of Southern Mississippi

About the Author
Patrick Hurley was born in Spokane, Washington in 1942. He received his bachelor’s degree in mathematics (with a Physics minor) from Gonzaga University in 1964 and his Ph.D. in philosophy of science with an emphasis in history of philosophy from Saint Louis University in 1973. In 1972 he began teaching at the University of San Diego where his courses have included logic, philosophy of science, metaphysics, process philosophy, and legal ethics. In 1987 he received his J.D. from the University of San Diego and he is currently a member of the California Bar Association. He retired from teaching in 2008, but he continues with his research and writing. His interests include music, art, opera, environmental issues, fishing, and skiing.

An Introduction to Logic by H.W.B. Joseph


H.W.B. JosephProgress, and the hope of progress, in logical investigations, have lain perhaps during the last three generations chiefly in two directions, either of analysing more closely the processes of thought exhibited in the sciences, or of determining what know ledge is, and the relation of the knowing mind to what it knows. Though I have been compelled to deal in some degree with the first of these questions, I am well aware that it demands a scientific knowledge which I do not possess ;the second I have not attempted systematically to discuss. The aim of the following book is more modest. There is a body of what might be called traditional doctrine in Logic, which is not only in fact used by itself as an instrument of intellectual discipline, but ought also to be in some degree mastered by those who would proceed to the higher and abstruser problems. It is of this traditional doctrine that Benjamin Jowett is recorded to have said, that Logic is neither a science, nor an art, but a dodge. I could perhaps best describe the motive with which this work was begun, as the desire to expound the traditional Logic in a way that did not deserve this accusation. The accusation was doubtless provoked by the attempt to force into a limited number of forms processes of thought, many of which can only with pretence and violence be made to fit them: an attempt, it may be added, at least as characteristic of Inductive Logic as of any other. In the course of centuries, the tradition has become divergent, and often corrupt. In this difficulty, I have ventured, like one or two other modern writers, to go back largely to its source in Aristotle.
(Typographical errors above are due to OCR software and don’t occur in the book.)

With Good Reason by S. Morris Engel

S. Morris EngelA concise, easy-to-read introduction to informal logic, With Good Reason offers both comprehensive coverage of informal fallacies and an abundance of engaging examples of both well-conceived and faulty arguments. A long-time favorite of both students and instructors, the text continues in its sixth edition to provide an abundance of exercises that help students identify, correct, and avoid common errors in argumentation.

Excellent little book for breaking down fallacies into their various categories.  One of the features it has is looking at real world examples and determining where the fallacy lies.

Fundamentals of Critical Argumentation by Douglas Wallace

Douglas WaltonPresenting the basic tools for the identification, analysis, and evaluation of common arguments for beginners, this book informs by using examples of arguments in dialogues, both in the text itself and in the exercises. (Examples of controversial legal, political, and ethical arguments are analyzed.) Illustrating the most common kinds of arguments, the book also explains how to evaluate each kind by critical questioning. Douglas Walton demonstrates the reasonable nature of arguments under the right dialogue conditions by using critical questions to evaluate them.

Psychology of Intelligence Analysis

Richard J. Hueur Jr.  Click for PDF


This volume pulls together and republishes, with some editing, updating, and additions, articles written during 1978-86 for internal use within the CIA Directorate of Intelligence. The information is relatively timeless and still relevant to the never-ending quest for better analysis. The articles are based on reviewing cognitive psychology literature concerning how people process information to make judgments on incomplete and ambiguous information. Richard Heur has selected the experiments and findings that seem most relevant to intelligence analysis and most in need of communication to intelligence analysts. He then translates the technical reports into language that intelligence analysts can understand and interpreted the relevance of these findings to the problems intelligence analysts face.




19 Rules of Inferences

Critical Reading

Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking Materials

Fallacious Arguments



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